¡ Truly We have granted thee a manifest victory,
1 In historical context, this verse is understood by many as a reference to the conquest of Makkah (JJ, Q, R) and, by extension, other future Muslim victories (JJ). But many of the Prophet’s Companions, such as Ibn Masʿūd and Anas ibn Mālik, saw it as a specific reference to the Treaty of Ḥudaybiyah (IK, Q), as this treaty allowed Muslims and non-Muslims to mix more freely and thus resulted in an increase in the number of adherents to Islam (IK, Q). In this regard, Ibn Masʿūd is reported to have said, “You consider the conquering of Makkah to be the victory, while to us the victory is the treaty conducted at Ḥudaybiyah” (IK). The verse can also be understood as a reference to the victory of Islam by means of proofs and revelation (R). Victory translates fatḥ, which also means “opening.” Read in this way, some understand fatḥ as a reference to the opening of the heart and thus to the unveiling of the secrets of the Divine Essence, the lights of the Divine Attributes, and the beauty of Divine Acts (Aj).