¡ Say, “I seek refuge in the Lord of mankind,
* the King of mankind,
+ the God of mankind,
1-3 These three verses are seen as an indication that, in order to find true refuge from Satan, people must recognize the complete sovereignty of God, that He is the only One to be worshipped and the only One upon Whom they can call for help, unlike those who take others as lords apart from God (9:31; Sh). From a Quranic perspective, it is by forgetting that God is the Lord, King or Sovereign, and God of mankind that human beings arrogate self-sufficiency to themselves, as when Pharaoh declares, I am your lord most high (79:24), Is not the sovereignty of Egypt mine (43:51), and I know of no god for you other than myself (28:38). Thus it is as if human beings are here being ordered to seek refuge from the illusion of self-sufficiency that is the root of all sin through acknowledging their complete dependence on God by saying, “Oh my Lord! Oh my King! Oh my God!” (R).